In his indictment dated 11 July 1996, the Prosecutor of the ICTR charges Anatole Nsegiyumva with 4 counts:
direct and public incitement to commit genocide, crimes against Humanity, and violations of Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and of Additional Protocol II.
In the above indictment it is said that: « Anatole Nsegiyumva was born on 4 September 1950 in Satinsya commune, Gisenyi prefecture, which is located in northwestern Rwanda. At the time of the events referred to the indictement of the Prosecutor, he was a lieutenant-colonel in the Rwandan Armed Forces and served as commander of military operations in Gisenyi prefecture, a position to which he was appointed on 13 June 1993 ».
« On the morning of 7 April 1994, Colonel Anatole Nsegiyumva presided over a meeting in Gisenyi prefecture, during which he ordered the participants to organize the killing of civilians. During the months of April through June 1994, Colonel Anatole Nsegiyumva presided over meetings of several hundred interahamwe militia at Umuganda stadium in Gisenyi prefecture, where he urged those in attendance to resume the killing of Tutsis ».
Anatole Nsegiyumva was arrested in the territory of the Republic of Cameroon by the Cameroonian authorities. The accused was transferred to the ICTR Detention Unit, located in Arusha, on 23 January 1997.
During the initial appearance, on 19 February 1997, Anatole Nsegiyumva pleaded not guilty.